Journal or Publishing Institution: Toxicology in Vitro
Author(s): Conte, F.M., Cestonaro, L.V., Piton, Y.V., Guimarães, N., Garcia, S.C., da Silva, D.D. and Arbo, M.D.
Article Type: Peer Reviewed Study
The transgenic soy monoculture demands supplementation with pesticides. The aim of this study was to evaluate the individual and mixture effects of fipronil, glyphosate and imidacloprid in human HepG2 cells. Cytotoxicity was evaluated after 48-h incubations through MTT reduction and neutral red uptake assays. Free radicals production, mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA damage, and release of liver enzymes were also evaluated. Data obtained for individual agents were used to compute the additivity expectations for two mixtures of definite composition (one equipotent mixture, based in the EC50 values achieved in the MTT assay; the other one based in the acceptable daily intake of each pesticide), using the models of concentration addition and independent action. The EC50 values for fipronil, glyphosate and imidacloprid were 37.59, 41.13, and 663.66 mg/L, respectively. The mixtures of pesticides elicited significant synergistic effects (p < 0.05), which were greater than the expected by both addictive predictions. Decreased in mitochondrial membrane potential and increased in the transaminases enzymatic activities were observed. As they occur simultaneously, interactions between pesticides, even at non-effective single levels, can reverberate in significant deleterious effects, justifying the need for a more realistic approach in safety evaluations to better predict the effects to human health.
Keywords: Mixture effects, Synergism, Cytotoxicity, Concentration addition (CA), Independent action (IA), In vitro
Conte, F.M., Cestonaro, L.V., Piton, Y.V., Guimarães, N., Garcia, S.C., da Silva, D.D. and Arbo, M.D., 2022. Toxicity of pesticides widely applied on soybean cultivation: Synergistic effects of fipronil, glyphosate and imidacloprid in HepG2 cells. Toxicology in Vitro, p.105446.